Ethiopian Languages

Spoken living languages

AARI [AIZ]   158,857mother tongue speakers, 13,319 second language users, 155,002 in the   ethnic group, 129,350 monolinguals (1998 census). North central Omo region,   southern tip of Ethiopian plateau, near the Hamer-Banna. Alternate names:   ARI, ARA, ARO, AARAI, ‘SHANKILLA’, ‘SHANKILLINYA’, ‘SHANKILLIGNA’. Dialects:   GOZZA, BAKO (BACO), BIYO (BIO), GALILA, LAYDO, SEYKI, SHANGAMA, SIDO,   WUBAHAMER (UBAMER), ZEDDO. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic,   South.
AFAR [AFR] 979,367   mother tongue speakers, 22,848 second language users, 979,367 in the ethnic   group, 905,872 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total all   countries 1,579,000. Alternate names: AFARAF, ‘DANAKIL’, ‘DENKEL’,   <AFAR AF, ADAL. Dialects: NORTHERN AFAR, CENTRAL AFAR, AUSSA, BAADU   (BA<ADU). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar.
 
AGAW, WESTERN [QIM] 1,650   mother tongue speakers, 3,181 second language users, out of 172,327 in the   ethnic group, 170,747 ethnic Western Agaw are monolingual in Amharic in   Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both countries 1,650 or more. Dialects:   QIMANT (KEMANT, KIMANT, KEMANAT, KAMANT, CHEMANT, QEMANT), DEMBIYA (DEMBYA,   DAMBYA), HWARASA (QWARA, QWARINA, ‘KARA’), KAYLA, SEMYEN, ACHPAR, KWOLASA   (KWOLACHA). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western.
 
ALABA [ALB] 126,257   mother tongue speakers, 25,271 second language users, 125,900 in the ethnic   group, 95,388 monolinguals (1998 census). Rift Valley southwest of Lake   Shala. Separated by a river from the Kambatta. Alternate names:   ALLAABA, HALABA. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East,   Highland.
 
AMHARIC [AMH]   17,372,913 mother tongue speakers, 5,104,150 second language users,   16,007,933 in the ethnic group, 14,743,556 monolinguals in Ethiopia, (1998   census). Population total all countries 17,413,000 or more. 21,000,000   including second language users (1999 WA). Alternate names:   ABYSSINIAN, ETHIOPIAN, AMARINYA, AMARIGNA. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba.
 
ANFILLO [MYO] 500   speakers out of an ethnic group of 1,000 (1990 SIL). Anfillo Forest, west of   Dembi Dolo. Alternate names: SOUTHERN MAO. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central.
 
ANUAK [ANU] 45,646   mother tongue speakers, 2,114 second language users, 45,665 in the ethnic   group, 34,311 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Gambela Region in the   southwest. Along the Baro, Alworo, and Gilo rivers and on the right bank of   the Akobo River. Gambela town is the main center. Alternate names:   ANYWAK, ANYUAK, ANYWA, YAMBO, JAMBO, YEMBO, BAR, BURJIN, MIROY, MOOJANGA,   NURO. Dialects: ADOYO, CORO, LUL, OPËNO. Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak.
 
ARBORE [ARV] 4,441   mother tongue speakers, 3,108 second language users, 6,559 in the ethnic   group, 3,907 monolinguals (1998 census). Extreme southwest, Omo Region, near   Lake Stefanie. Alternate names: ARBORA, ERBORE, IRBORE. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.
 
ARGOBBA [AGJ] 10,860   mother tongue speakers, 3,236 second language speakers, 62,831 in the ethnic   group. 44,737 monolinguals, including 47,285 in Amharic, 3,771 in Oromo, 541   in Tigrigna (1999 census). Fragmented areas along the Rift Valley in   settlements like Yimlawo, Gusa, Shonke, Berket, Keramba, Mellajillo,   Metehara, Shewa Robit and surrounding rural villages. Dialects:   ANKOBER, SHONKE. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South,   Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba.
 
AWNGI [AWN] 356,980   mother tongue speakers, 64,425 second language speakers, 397,491 in the   ethnic group, 279,326 monolinguals (1998 census). Amhara Region. Widely   scattered parts of Agew Midir and Metekel, southwest of Lake Tana. Alternate   names: AWIYA, AWI, AGAW, AGAU, AGEW, AGOW, AWAWAR, DAMOT, KWOLLANYOCH. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern.
 
BAISO [BSW] 1,010   (1995 SIL) out of a larger ethnic group. Alge village near Merab Abaya, half   way between Soddo and Arba Minch (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima   villages (200); and Welege (420) Island on Lake Abaya, and the western shore   of the lake. Alternate names: BAYSO, ALKALI. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.
 
BAMBASSI [MYF] 5,000   (1982 SIL). Beni Shangul Region, in and around Bambesi. Alternate names:   BAMBESHI, SIGGOYO, AMAM, FADIRO, NORTHERN MAO, DIDESSA. Dialects:   KERE, BAMBASSI. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao,   East.
 
BASKETTO [BST] 57,805   mother tongue speakers, 8,961 second language speakers, 51,097 in the ethnic   group, 42,726 monolinguals (1998 census). North Omo Region, on a plateau west   of Bulki. Alternate names: BASKETO, BASKATTA, MESKETO. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo,   West.
 
BENCH [BCQ] 173,586   mother tongue speakers, 22,640 second language speakers, 173,123 in the   ethnic group, 149,293 monolinguals including 10,002 She, 1,070 Mer (1998   census). Kafa Region, in and around Mizan Teferi and Shewa Bench towns. Alternate   names: GIMIRA, GHIMARRA, GIMARRA, DIZU. Dialects: BENCH (BENCHO,   BENESHO), MER (MIERU), SHE (SCE, KABA). Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira.
 
BERTA [WTI] 124,799   mother tongue speakers including 8,715 Fadashi; 16,533 second language   speakers including 795 of Fadashi; 125,853 in the ethnic group including   7,323 Fadashi in Ethiopia; 99,689 monolinguals including 4,146 Fadashi (1998   census). Population total both countries 147,000. Alternate names:   BENI SHANGUL, BERTHA, BARTA, BURTA, WETAWIT, JEBELAWI. Dialects:   SHURU, BAKE, UNDU, MAYU, FADASHI, DABUSO, GOBATO. Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Berta.
 
BIRALE [BXE] 20   speakers out of an ethnic group of 70 (1990 SIL). One village on the west   bank of the Weyt’o River, southeast Omo Region. Alternate names:   ‘ONGOTA, BIRELLE, IFA’ONGOTA, ‘SHANQILLA’. Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Unclassified.
 
BORO [BWO] 19,878   mother tongue speakers including 144 Gamila; 2,276 second language speakers   including 45 Gamila; 32,894 in the ethnic group including 186 Gamila; 18,567   monolinguals including 77 Gamila (1998 census). Southwest Amhara Region, near   the Blue Nile River. Alternate names: BWORO, SHINASHA, SCINACIA. Dialects:   AMURU, WAMBERA, GAMILA, GUBA. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic,   North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North.
 
BURJI [BJI] 35,731   mother tongue speakers, 3,045 second language speakers, 46,565 in the ethnic   group, 29,259 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both   countries 42,730. Alternate names: BAMBALA, BEMBALA, DAASHI. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.
 
BUSSA [DOX] 6,624   mother tongue speakers, 920 second language speakers, 9,207 in the ethnic   group, 4,955 monolinguals (1998 census). Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate   names: DOBASE, D’OOPACE, D’OPAASUNTE, LOHU, MASHILE, MASHELLE, MASHOLLE,   MOSIYE, MUSIYE, GOBEZE, GOWASE, GORAZE, ORASE. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay.
 
CHARA [CRA] 6,932   mother tongue speakers, 668 second language speakers, 6,984 in the ethnic   group, 5,556 monolinguals (1998 census). Central Kafa Region, just north of   the Omo River. Alternate names: CIARA. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara.
 
DAASANACH [DSH] 32,064   mother tongue speakers, 231 second language speakers, 32,099 in the ethnic   group, 31,368 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both   countries 34,560. Alternate names: DASENECH, DAASANECH, DATHANAIK,   DATHANAIC, DATHANIK, GHELEBA, GELEBA, GELEB, GELEBINYA, GALLAB, GALUBA,   GELAB, GELUBBA, DAMA, MARILLE, MERILE, MERILLE, MORILLE, RESHIAT, RUSSIA,   ‘SHANGILLA’. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western   Omo-Tana.
 
DIME [DIM] 6,501   mother tongue speakers, 529 second language speakers, 6,197 in the ethnic   group, 4,785 monolinguals (1998 census). Kafa Region, north of the Omo River,   just before it turns south. Alternate names: DIMA. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.
 
DIRASHA [GDL] 50,328   mother tongue speakers, 1,974 second language speakers, 54,354 in the ethnic   group, 41,685 monolinguals (1998 census). Omo Region, in the hills west of   Lake Chamo, around Gidole town. Alternate names: DHIRASHA, DIRAASHA,   DIRAYTA, GARDULLA, GHIDOLE, GIDOLE. Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole.
 
DIZI [MDX] 21,075   mother tongue speakers, 2,054 second language speakers, 21,894 in the ethnic   group, 17,583 monolinguals (1998 census). Kafa Region, near Maji town. Alternate   names: MAJI, DIZI-MAJI, SIZI, TWOYU. Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Omotic, North, Dizoid.
 
DORZE [DOZ] 20,782   mother tongue speakers, 3,597 second language speakers, 28,990 in the ethnic   group, 9,905 monolinguals (1998 census). Mostly in North Omo Region in and   around Chencha, but a significant community is in Addis Ababa. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo,   Central.
 
ENGLISH [ENG] 1,986   mother tongue speakers, 169,726 second language users (1998 census). Classification:   Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.
 
GAMO-GOFA-DAWRO [GMO] 1,236,637   mother tongue speakers including 690,069 Gamo, 313,228 Dawro, 233,340 Gofa;   77,883 second language users including 24,438 Gamo, 19,996 Dawro, 33,449   Gofa; 1,292,860 in the ethnic group including 719,847 Gamo, 331,483 Dawro,   241,530 Gofa; 1,046,084 monolinguals including 597,130 Gamo, 259,633 Dawro,   189,321 Gofa (1998 census). Omo Region, in and around Arba Minch, and in the   mountains west to Lake Abaya. Dache is a place name, not a language. Dialects:   GAMO (GEMU), GOFA (GOFFA), DAWRO (DAURO, KULLO, CULLO, OMETAY). Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo,   Central.
 
GANZA [GZA] Western   Oromo, near the Blue Nile. Alternate names: GANZO, KOMA. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West.
 
GAWWADA [GWD] 32,698   mother tongue speakers, 1,367 second language speakers, 33,971 in the ethnic   group, 27,477 monolinguals (1998 census). Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate   names: GAUWADA, GAWATA, KAWWAD’A, KAWWADA. Dialects: DIHINA   (TIHINA, TIHINTE), GERGERE (K’ARK’ARTE), GOBEZE, GOLLANGO (KOLLANKO), GOROSE   (GORROSE, KORROSE), HARSO (WORASE). Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Cushitic, East, Dullay.
 
GEDEO [DRS] 637,082   mother tongue speakers, 47,950 second language speakers, 639,905 in the   ethnic group, 438,958 monolinguals (1998 census). Central highland area,   southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. Alternate names: GEDDEO,   DERESA, DERASA, DARASA, DERASANYA, DARASSA. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.
 
GUMUZ [GUK] 120,424   mother tongue speakers, 4,379 second language speakers, 121,487 in the ethnic   group, 88,192 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both   countries 160,400. Alternate names: GUMIS, GOMBO, ‘SHANKILLINYA’,   ‘SHANQILLA’, MENDEYA, DEBATSA, DEBUGA, DEHENDA, BEGA, ‘SHANKILLIGNA’. Dialects:   DAKUNZA (DUKUNA, DUGUNZA, DUKUNZA, DUGUNZ, GUNZA, GANZA, DEGOJA), SAI, SESE   (SAYSAY), DISOHA (DESUA). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz.
 
GURAGE, EAST [GRE] 827,764   mother tongue speakers, 89,042 second language speakers, 900,348 in the   ethnic group (1998 census). About 150 kms. south of Addis Ababa. Dialects:   ENNEQOR (INNEQOR), SILTI (SELTI), ULBARAG (URBAREG), WOLANE (WALANE). Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East   Gurage.
 
GURAGE, SODDO [GRU] 254,682   mother tongue speakers, 60,538 second language speakers, 363,867 in the   ethnic group (1998 census). 4,000 Gogot. Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region,   just southwest of Addis Ababa. Alternate names: KISTANE, SODDO, NORTH   GURAGE. Dialects: SODDO (AYMALLAL, AYMELLEL, KESTANE, KISTANE), GOGOT   (GOGGOT, DOBI, DOBBI). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South,   Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group.
 
GURAGE, WEST [GUY] 798,202   mother tongue speakers, 58,694 second language speakers, 1,022,089 in the   ethnic group (1998 census). All Gurage languages including Soddo: 1,881,574   mother tongue speakers, 208,358 second language speakers, 2,290,274 in the   ethnic group, 1,248,415 monolinguals (1998 census). West Gurage Region. Alternate   names: CENTRAL WEST GURAGE, GURAGIE, GOURAGHIE, GURAGUE. Dialects:   CHAHA (CHEHA), INOR (ENNEMOR), EZHA (EZA, IZHA), GUMER (GWEMARRA), GURA,   ENEGEGNY, MASQAN (MESQAN, MESKAN), MUHER. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.
 
HADIYYA [HDY] 923,958   mother tongue speakers, 150,889 second language speakers, 927,933 in the   ethnic group, 595,107 monolinguals (1998 census). Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya   Region, between the Omo and Billate rivers, in and around Hosaina town. Alternate   names: ADIYA, ADIYE, HADIYA, HADYA, ADEA, HADIA. Dialects: LEEMO,   SORO. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.
 
HAMER-BANNA [AMF] 42,838   mother tongue speakers, 7,120 second language speakers, 42,466 in the ethnic   group, 38,354 monolinguals (1998 census). South Omo Region, near the Omo   River, and north of Lake Turkana, in the southwest corner, near the Kenya,   Uganda, Sudan borders. Alternate names: HAMAR-KOKE, HAMMERCOCHE,   AMARCOCCHE, COCCHE, BESHADA, HAMER, HAMMER, HAMAR, AMER, AMAR, AMMAR, BANNA,   BANA, KARA KERRE. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.
 
HARARI [HAR] 21,283   mother tongue speakers, 7,766 second language speakers, 21,757 in the ethnic   group, 2,351 monolinguals (1998 census). Today 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside   Harar city (Hetzron 1997:486). Homeland Eastern, traditionally within the   walled city of Harar. Large communities in Addis Ababa, Nazareth and Dire   Dawa. Alternate names: HARARRI, ADARE, ADERE, ADERINYA, ADARINNYA, GEY   SINAN. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South,   Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.
 
HOZO [HOZ] 3,000   (1995 SIL). Western Oromo Region, Begi area, 50 or more villages. Alternate   names: BEGI-MAO. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao,   West.
 
KACHAMA-GANJULE [KCX] 4,072   mother tongue speakers including 2,682 Kachama,1,390 Ganjule; 419 second   language speakers including 223 Kachama, 196 Ganjule; 3,886 in the ethnic group   including 2,740 Kachama, 1,146 Ganjule; 1,002 monolinguals including 816   Kachama, 186 Ganjule (1998 census). Kachama is on Gidicho Island in Lake   Abaya. Ganjule originally on a small island in Lake Chamo. Ganjule have   recently relocated to Shela-Mela on the west shore of Lake Chamo. Alternate   names: GATS’AME, GET’EME. Dialects: GANJULE (GANJAWLE), GANTA,   KACHAMA. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan,   Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East.
 
KACIPO-BALESI [KOE] 2,000 to   3,000 in Ethiopia (1982 SIL). Southern Ethiopia-Sudan border, Boma Plateau in   Sudan (Kacipo). Dialects: BALESI (BAALE, BALE), ZILMAMU (SILMAMO,   ZELMAMU, ZULMAMU, TSILMANO), KACIPO (KACHEPO, SURI, WESTERN SURI). Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest,   Kacipo-Balesi.
 
KAFICHO [KBR] 569,626   mother tongue speakers, 46,720 second language speakers, 599,188 in the   ethnic group, 445,018 monolinguals (1998 census). Kafa Region, in and around   the town of Bonga. There may be some in Sudan. Alternate names: KAFA,   KEFA, KEFFA, KAFFA, CAFFINO, MANJO. Dialects: KAFA, BOSHA (GARO). Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South.
 
KAMBAATA [KTB] 606,241   mother tongue speakers including 487,655 Kambaata, 82,803 Timbaro, 35,783   Qebena; 83,750 second language speakers including 68,607 Kambaata, 10,715   Timbaro. 4,428 Qebena; 621,407 in the ethnic group including 499,825   Kambaata, 86,510 Timbaro, 35,072 Qebena; 345,797 monolinguals including 278,567   Kambaata, 51,541 Timbaro, 15,689 Qebena (1998 census). Southwest Gurage,   Kambaata, Hadiyya Region. Durame is the main town. Alternate names:   KAMBATTA, KAMBATA, KEMBATA, KEMATA, KAMBARA, DONGA. Dialects: TAMBARO,   TIMBARO (TIMBARA, TIMBAARO), QEBENA (QABENA, KEBENA, K’ABENA). Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.
 
KARO [KXH] 200 (1998   M. Yigezu). South Omo Region, upstream from the Daasanech, riverside   settlements near the Hamer-Banna. Alternate names: KERRE, CHERRE,   KERE. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.
 
KOMO [KOM] 1,500 in   Ethiopia (1975 Bender). South and west of Kwama. Alternate names:   MADIIN, KOMA, SOUTH KOMA, CENTRAL KOMA. Dialects: KOMA OF BEGI, KOMA   OF DAGA. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman.
 
KOMSO [KXC] 149,508   mother tongue speakers, 5,658 second language speakers, 153,419 in the ethnic   group, 138,696 monolinguals (1998 census). South of Lake Ciamo in the bend of   the Sagan River. A few migrants in Kenya. Alternate names: KONSO,   CONSO, GATO, AF-KARETI, KARATE, KARETI. Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole.
 
KOORETE [KQY] 103,879   mother tongue speakers, 2,371 second language speakers, 107,595 in the ethnic   group, 84,388 monolinguals (1998 census). About 60 Harro families in Harro   village on Gidicho (Gidicció) Island. In the Amaro mountains east of Lake   Abaya, Sidama Region. Alternate names: AMARRO, AMAARRO, BADITTU, NUNA,   KOYRA. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan,   Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East.
 
KUNFAL [XUF] East of   Lake Tana. Alternate names: KUNFEL, KUMFEL. Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Cushitic, Central, Southern.
 
KWAMA [KMQ] 15,000   (1982 SIL). Along Sudan border in southern Beni Shangul Region, from south of   Asosa to Gidami, and in Gambela and Bonga. 19 villages, including one (Yabus)   in Sudan. Alternate names: TAKWAMA, GWAMA, GOMA, GOGWAMA, KOMA OF   ASOSA, NORTH KOMA, NOKANOKA, AFAN MAO, AMAM, T’WA KWAMA. Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman.
 
KWEGU [YID] 103   mother tongue speakers, 51 second language speakers, 173 in the ethnic group,   73 monolinguals (1998 census). Kuchur village on the western bank of the Omo   River in southwestern Ethiopia. Alternate names: KOEGU, KWEGI, BACHA,   MENJA. Dialects: YIDINICH (YIDINIT, YIDI), MUGUJI. Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Kwegu.
 
LIBIDO [LIQ] 36,612   mother tongue speakers, 9,208 second language speakers, 38,096 in the ethnic   group, 14,623 monolinguals (1998 census). Hadiyya, Kambaata, Gurage Region,   northeast of Hosaina. Alternate names: MARAQO, MARAKO. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.
 
MAJANG [MPE] 15,341   mother tongue speakers, 438 second language speakers, 15,341 in the ethnic   group, 10,752 monolinguals (1998 census). Southwest. Mainly within a long,   narrow belt between Bure (east of Gambela) and Guraferda to the south. Covers   part of Gambela, Oromo, and Kafa administrative regions. They have been   scattered, but are now settling in villages. Alternate names: MESENGO,   MASONGO, MASANGO, MAJANJIRO, TAMA, OJANJUR, AJO, ATO MAJANG, ATO   MAJANGER-ONK. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern,   Surmic, North, Majang.
 
MALE [MDY] 53,779   mother tongue speakers, 6,730 second language speakers, 46,458 in the ethnic   group, 40,660 monolinguals (1998 census). Omo Region, southeast of Jinka. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo.
 
ME’EN [MYM] 56,585   mother tongue speakers including 4,570 Bodi; 6,300 second language speakers   including 342 Bodi; 57,501 in the ethnic group including 4,686 Bodi; 51,446   monolinguals including 4,553 Bodi (1998 census). Central Kafa region, the   Tishena in and around Bachuma, the Bodi in lowlands to the south, near the   Omo River. Not in Sudan. Alternate names: MEKAN, MIE’EN, MIEKEN,   MEQAN, MEN. Dialects: BODI (PODI), TISHENA (TESHINA, TESHENNA). Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral,   Me’en.
 
MELO [MFX] 20,151   mother tongue speakers, 4,657 second language users, 20,189 in the ethnic   group, 13,264 monolinguals (1998 census). North Omo Region, in and around   Malo-Koza, northeast of the Basketo. Alternate names: MALO. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo,   Central.
 
MESMES [MYS] Gurage,   Hadiyya, Kambatta Region. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic,   South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.
 
MURLE [MUR] 200 in   Ethiopia (1975 Tournay). South of the Akobo River. Olam is in southwest   Ethiopia and on the Sudan border. It is between Murle and Majang culturally   and linguistically (Bender 1983). Alternate names: MURELE, MERULE,   MOURLE, MURULE, BEIR, AJIBBA. Dialects: OLAM (NGALAM, BANGALAM). Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest,   Didinga-Murle, Murle.
 
MURSI [MUZ] 3,278   mother tongue speakers, 34 second language users, 3,258 in the ethnic group,   3,155 monolinguals (1998 census). Central Omo Region, lowlands southwest of   Jinka. Alternate names: MURZI, MURZU, MERDU, MERITU, DAMA. Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral,   Suri.
 
NAYI [NOZ] 3,656   mother tongue speakers, 1,876 second language users, 4,005 in the ethnic   group, 1,137 monolinguals (1998 census). Decha Awraja, Kafa Region, and   scattered in other parts of Kafa. The nearest town is Bonga. A few in Dulkuma   village of the Shoa Bench Wereda, and Aybera, Kosa, and Jomdos villages of   Sheko Wereda. Alternate names: NA’O, NAO. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid.
 
NUER [NUS] 64,907   mother tongue speakers, 1,122 second language speakers, 64,534 in the ethnic   group, 61,640 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Along the Baro River,   in Gambela Region. Alternate names: NAATH. Dialects: EASTERN   NUER (JI, KANY, JIKANY, DOOR, ABIGAR). Classification: Nilo-Saharan,   Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer.
 
NYANGATOM [NNJ] 14,177   mother tongue speakers, 123 second language speakers, 14,201 in the ethnic   group, 13,797 monolinguals (1998 census). Extreme southwest corner of   Ethiopia, Omo Region. Two settlement centers: Omo River and Kibish River.   Transhumance into the region of Moru Angipi in Sudan. Alternate names:   INYANGATOM, DONYIRO, DONGIRO, IDONGIRO. Classification: Nilo-Saharan,   Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana.
 
OPUUO [LGN] 301   mother tongue speakers, 72 second language speakers, 307 in the ethnic group,   235 monolinguals (1998 census). Population total both countries 301 or more. Alternate   names: OPO-SHITA, OPO, OPUO, CITA, CIITA, SHITA, SHIITA, ANSITA, KINA,   KWINA, ‘LANGA’. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman.
 
OROMO [GAZ] 27,158,471   (1998 census). Population total both countries 27,158,471. Alternate   names: OROMOO. Dialects: Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Cushitic,  Oromo.
 
OYDA [OYD] 16,597   mother tongue speakers, 4,040 second language speakers, 14,075 in the ethnic   group, 6,244 monolinguals (1998 census). Northwest Omo Region, southwest of   Sawla. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan,   Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.
 
RER BARE [RER] Wabi   Shebelle River around Gode, eastern Ogaden, near Somali border, and along the   Ganale and Dawa rivers. Alternate names: REREBERE, ADONA. Classification:   Unclassified.
 
SAHO [SSY] 22,759   first language speakers in Ethiopia, 3,378 second language speakers (1998   census). Tigray. Alternate names: SAO, SHAHO, SHOHO, SHIHO. Dialects:   IROB. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar.
 
SEZE [SZE] 3,000   (1995 SIL). Western Oromo Region, near Begi, north of the Hozo. Alternate   names: SEZO. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao,   West.
 
SHABO [SBF] 400 to   1,000 (1986) out of a larger ethnic population. Kafa Region, between Godere   and Mashi, among the Majang and Shakacho. Alternate names: SHAKO,   ‘MEKEYER’, ‘MIKEYIR’, ‘MIKAIR’. Classification: Nilo-Saharan,   Unclassified.
 
SHAKACHO [MOY] 54,894   mother tongue speakers, 3,476 second language speakers, 53,897 in the ethnic   group, 36,449 monolinguals (1998 census). North Kafa Region, in and around   Maasha. Alternate names: MOC’HA, MOCHA, SHEKKA. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South.
 
SHEKO [SHE] 23,785   mother tongue speakers, 4,920 second language speakers, 23,785 in the ethnic   group, 13,611 monolinguals (1998 census). Kafa Region, Shako District.   Gaizek’a is a monolingual community. Bajek’a, Selale, and Shimi are   multilingual. Alternate names: SHEKKO, SHEKKA, TSCHAKO, SHAKO, SHAK. Dialects:   DORSHA, BULLA (DAAN, DAN, DAANYIR). Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Omotic, North, Dizoid.
 
SIDAMO [SID] 1,876,329   mother tongue speakers, 101,340 second language speakers, 1,842,314 in the   ethnic group, 1,632,902 monolinguals (1998 census). South central Ethiopia,   northeast of Lake Abaya and southeast of Lake Awasa (Sidamo Awraja). Awasa is   the capital of the Sidama Region. Alternate names: SIDÁMO ‘AFÓ,   SIDAMINYA. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.
 
SOMALI [SOM] 3,187,053   mother tongue speakers, 95,572 second language speakers, 3,160,540 in the   ethnic group, 2,878,371 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Southeast   Ethiopia, Somali Region. Alternate names: STANDARD SOMALI, COMMON   SOMALI. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.
 
SURI [SUQ] 19,622   mother tongue speakers, 212 second language speakers, 19,632 in the ethnic   group, 19,269 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both   countries 20,600. Alternate names: SURMA, SHURI, CHURI, DHURI, SHURO,   EASTERN SURI. Dialects: TIRMA (TIRIMA, TEREMA, TERNA, DIRMA, CIRMA,   TIRMAGA, TIRMAGI, TID), CHAI (CAI, CACI). Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral,   Suri.
 
TIGRIGNA [TGN] 3,224,875   mother tongue speakers, 146,933 second language speakers, 3,284,568 in the   ethnic group, 2,819,755 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population   total all countries 5,135,000. Alternate names: TIGRINYA, TIGRAY. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North.
 
TSAMAI [TSB] 8,621   mother tongue speakers, 1,200 second language speakers, 9,702 in the ethnic   group, 5.298 monolinguals (1998 census). Omo Region, lowlands west of Lake   Chamo. Alternate names: TS’AMAY, S’AMAI, TAMAHA, TSAMAKO, TSAMAKKO,   BAGO S’AAMAKK-ULO, KUILE, KULE, CULE. Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Cushitic, East, Dullay.
 
UDUK [UDU]   Population total both countries 20,000 (1995 W. James). Alternate names:   TWAMPA, KWANIM PA, BURUN, KEBEIRKA, OTHAN, KORARA, KUMUS. Classification:   Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman.
 
WOLAYTTA [WBC] 1,231,673   mother tongue speakers, 89,801 second language speakers, 1,269,216 in the   ethnic group, 999,694 monolinguals (1998 census). Wolaytta Region, Lake Abaya   area. Alternate names: WELLAMO, WELAMO, WOLLAMO, WALLAMO, WALAMO,   UALAMO, UOLLAMO, WOLAITTA, WOLAITA, WOLAYTA, WOLATAITA, BORODDA, UBA, OMETO. Dialects:   ZALA. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan,   Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.
 
XAMTANGA [XAN] 143,369   mother tongue speakers, 11,026 second language speakers, 158,231 in the   ethnic group, 93,889 monolinguals (1998 census). North Amhara Region,   Avergele District and Lasta and Waag zones, 100 kms. north of Weldiya. Alternate   names: KHAMTANGA, SIMT’ANGA, AGAWINYA, XAMTA, XAMIR. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern.
 
YEMSA [JNJ] 81,613   mother tongue speakers, 4,356 second language speakers, 165,184 in the ethnic   group, 114,701 monolinguals (1998 census). Oromo Region, recognized as   separate district, northeast of Jimma, southwestern Ethiopia, Fofa, and mixed   with the Oromo in their villages; Sokoru, Saja, Deedoo, Sak’a, Jimma. Alternate   names: YEM, YEMMA, ‘JANJERO’, ‘JANJERINYA’, ‘JANJOR’, ‘YANGARO’,   ‘ZINJERO’. Dialects: FUGA OF JIMMA, TOBA. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero.
 
ZAY [ZWA] 4,880   (1994 SIL). Shores of Lake Zway and eastern islands in Lake Zway. Alternate   names: ZWAY, LAK’I, LAQI, GELILLA. Classification: Afro-Asiatic,   Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.
 
ZAYSE-ZERGULLA [ZAY] 17,797   mother tongue speakers including 10,172 Zayse, 7,625 Zergulla; 2,815 second   language speakers including 1,017 Zayse, 1,798 Zergulla; 11,232 in the ethnic   group including 10,842 Zayse, 390 Zergulla; 7,530 monolinguals including   7,371 Zayse, 159 Zergulla (1998 census). Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate   names: ZAYSSE. Dialects: ZERGULLA (ZERGULLINYA), ZAYSE. Classification:   Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo,   East.